Garden news: June 14

Summer is really here because I’ve lost the will to mulch anything else. I mean, I have a huge pile of mulch so I will keep spreading it, but I mind. The borders have been weeded, edged, and mulched. Only the hard stuff is left (the veg patch, which is more of a weed patch at the mo, and the shade garden, which is up a hill).

I’m ready to shift into summer maintenance mode: Watering Wednesdays, Feeding Fridays, Supplemental Sundays, and pick things over when I feel like it.

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Stuff is coming out of the garden regularly now. We’re eating lettuce and chard as fast as we can (seriously, I have 15 chard plants and we can’t keep up), I have picked a couple handfuls of strawberries, and yesterday I cut the first big bouquet of the year out of peonies that had flopped all over (to do: order peony rings) and saponaria.

It is also time to cut some things down. The columbines are finished so their flowering stalks need to go, and the Siberian iris and roses need deadheading. I think I will cut off the flowering stalks of my hardy geraniums, too. Last year I did it, which produced a pleasing tidy mound of foliage, but the one or two stalks I missed continued to form new flowers at the tips all summer–so I thought I’d let them all do that this year. But now the plants are just obscured by a haze of mostly-dead flower heads and it’s ugly. So I will cut them back.

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I have a couple of topical discussions for this entry. First, border design. Second, bouquet fillers.

Border design–the selection and arrangement of plants in a flower bed, for the other Americans here–has started to worry me, and I think that means I’ve leveled up. I’ve put in the beds and planted them and kept stuff alive for a couple years, and now I’m figuring out that that doesn’t necessarily mean they look good. I’m refining my color palette, for example: stark blues like nepeta have been ousted in favor of plummier hues like purple sedums, various Spanish lavenders (holy cats, I think I am collecting those), and dianthus. I added a touch of peachy-pink in the form of Georgia Peach dianthus and I think it’s good. White, plum, and peachy-pink is the color scheme I’m aiming for.

Then there’s the problem of making the borders look full and happy. This is partly a matter of letting the plants mature so I see how big they get, then moving them into final places. I have another theory, though: a flower border needs a good solid front and a good solid back. If you have that, you can flub the interior a little.

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By “good solid” I mean solid, as in leafy and green and unmistakable at a distance. Lighter foliage is better than darker foliage for this, and fluffier foliage better than plants on tall thin stems.

My best front-of-the-border plants right now are various dianthus, with their silvery foliage that forms a solid mat and can’t be missed, pale sedums that form tidy mounds, and saxifrages, which provide less in the way of foliage but lots in the way of starry flowers, which are a nice interlude to the other stuff.

My best back-of-the-border plants are globe thistles for sure, and hollyhocks maybe. The weather here isn’t as warm as hollyhocks like it, and rabbits much on them, but the ones that survived last year are growing up tall this year, and they’ll be good. They’re also easy to grow from seed and in my experience many are true perennials.

The globe thistles are a reality I am coming to grips with. They are thistles, and they are huge and spiky and rather horrible in a very thistly way, until finally–in late July or even August–they bloom, and then everyone is impressed with them. I am still not convinced that their flowers make up for the monstrosity of their foliage but they do get tall and solid, they are cheap and easy to grow from seed, and I don’t have any better ideas. So I am growing lots of Star Frost (ie white-blooming) globe thistles.

The interiors of my borders won’t change much. Taller sedums, Siberian iris, foxgloves, peonies, gaura, and various tough Mediterranean things: salvias, lavenders, veronicas. And then there is the question of dahlias.

My husband left his dahlias in to over-winter. Over that winter, his garden flooded and we had a night go down to 17 degrees Fahrenheit, which is unusually cold for here. The dahlias at the soggiest end of the garden died but the rest lived, so I now feel confident that there’s no need to dig up my dahlias every autumn–which means I need to select my favorites and put them in permanent spots.

They get tall enough that they should go just in front of the back-of-the-border stuff. They don’t start to peek above the soil until May though, long after I’m usually busy burrowing around and mulching things. So how to mark them?

With bulbs. This fall I’ll put them in, and plant circles of tall alliums around them. The allium foliage comes up early, and will mark the dahlias’ places. The alliums will bloom while the dahlias are still putting on foliage. Then the alliums will die back just as the dahlias come into their own.

I really feel that I am rather clever for thinking of this.

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Moving from the perennial border to the cutting garden: the question of bouquet fillers.

Listen, darlings, I have no taste or sophistication in the way of flower arranging. I’m happy to plunk a fistful of dahlias into water and call it done. But in the interest of expanding my horizons, and because Johnny’s pictures of all their flowers are so delicious, I experiment with growing bouquet fillers.

Last year I tried Sweet Annie and it was a failure. The plants grew tall and skinny, bloomed like weeds, and didn’t smell all that great. I ripped them up. Likewise this year the Persian Cress, which has already grown and been ripped out.

Successful fillers are saponaria, which looks like a cross between Baby’s Breath and Rose Campion and has the added bonus of actually acting as a surfactant if you want to wash your hair with it, and atriplex, which I still have in plugs but which has grown as lustily and beautifully as I’ve allowed it to.

Honestly, though, my two favorite fillers aren’t listed as fillers at all: cosmos and ammi. Cosmos is ridiculously hardy and easy to grow, and while it makes a profusion of attractive flowers, it also makes a riotous mist of greenery just perfect for tucking in between other things. It self-seeds like mad (because one can’t possibly deadhead all those flowers) so if you’ve bought seed once you can have it forever. Ammi requires a little more care, but also provides clouds of feathery foliage. The darker shades of Dara are absolutely killing and of course the white varieties look nice with anything.

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Designing a fictional language: part 1

Hello all!

I’ve been thinking lately about scifi and fantasy, and worldbuilding, and how one of the earliest things a writer (or this writer, anyway) does when designing a character is to come up with a name for that character.

Are you a worldbuilding nerd? Do you have characters and places to name? Would you like the names you choose to feel like they really belong together, like they all come from a particular place with a particular culture and feel to it? And would you like to lay the foundation for making up a whole fictional language for them while you’re doing it?

Lucky you, because I have a doctorate in linguistics, and I can tell you how.

What we need to do is to come up with a set of rules to describe how your culture’s language sounds (or, since we’re writing fiction here, how it looks on the page). To do this you’ll need to decide what its people’s vocal tracts are like, which will tell you what sounds they can make. Next you’ll decide which of those sounds they actually use. Then you’ll design the structure of their language’s syllables. At this point, you will know enough to go ahead and begin constructing names…or, if you want extra credit, you can go on to make up some phonological transformations first. That would be Tolkien-level stuff though, and do you want to be doing Tolkien-level stuff?

Yeah, I thought you probably did.

So without further ado, here is installment 1 in designing your scifi/fantasy language, with the specific goal of creating names.

 

Vocal Tracts

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Vocal tracts are what birds and mammals use to make noises. They include everything that can be manipulated to make sounds using air that flows from the outside into the animal’s lungs and back out again.

Different kinds of animals can have different vocal tracts. Birds, for example, have a vocal tract that consists basically of a trachea, a syrinx, an oral cavity, an upper esophagus, and a beak. Mammals on the other hand have a laryngeal cavity or glottis, a pharynx, an oral cavity, and a nasal cavity. Humans specifically can also manipulate their tongue and lips to change the sounds their oral cavities make.

Are your characters humanoids? Are they actually humans? Are they not humanoid at all? That will affect their vocal tracts, which will affect what sounds they can make.

Before you get too excited, let me take you aside for a moment and have a serious talk about that. If your creatures aren’t even humanoids, they’ll still have to communicate to your readers somehow, using symbols for sounds that your readers understand. Your hero might be a gelatinous blob incapable of any noise but low-frequency humming, and that’s all very well, but you’ll have a hell of a time conveying it on the page.

You’ll encounter similar questions if your characters are birds, or if they have a syrinx like a bird…or even if they are mammalian but non-humanoid, like horses. Jonathan Swift did a bang-up job giving names to his intelligent horses, the Houyhnhnms, in Gulliver’s Travels, by the way. Just looking at “houyhnhnm” you see that it’s a sound a horse could make.

But it will be easiest and most straightforward to say that your characters are humanoid, or at least that they articulate like humans. Just saying.

 

Phonology

If your characters are humanoid then they can make consonant sounds at a few basic points of articulation. They have flexible tongues and lips that can touch those places of articulation in different ways, too.

The basic kinds of consonants that humans make, broken down by what parts of the vocal tract are making them, are:

Glottal sounds, made with the glottis. That’s down near your vocal cords, the farthest down in your throat that you can manipulate sound, and the most familiar English glottal sound is H.

Pharyngeal sounds, made with the pharynx. English doesn’t have these! If you’d like to make a pharyngeal sound yourself, try making an H, but make it hiss. Our glottal H is by necessity pronounced without much turbulence of air, but the pharynx can be tightened, and a hissing H will do that. Some people make this sound when they’ve just taken a bite of really spicy food.

Uvular sounds, made against your uvula, that fleshy blob at the back of your mouth. A few English dialects from specific parts of the British Isles use a uvular sound at the end of the word “loch.” Standard American English doesn’t use uvular sounds.

Velar sounds, created by putting the back of the tongue against the soft palate, which is the soft part at the back of your mouth. Familiar English sounds here include K and G.

Palatal sounds, made with the middle part of the tongue against the hard palate, which is a fancy way of saying the top of your mouth. The English Y sound happens here.

Retroflex sounds, made with the tip of the tongue rolled backward to touch the hard palate. The usual English R is pronounced here, and some dialects pronounce L here too.

Postalveolar sounds are made with the tip of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, which is the downward slope as you move from your hard palate toward your teeth. Many English speakers pronounce L here, as well as N.

Alveolar sounds are the tip of the tongue on the alveolar ridge. D, T, S, and Sh are here.

Dental sounds are created with the tip of the tongue against the back of the teeth. Think Th.

Labiodental sounds are created with the lips and teeth together. F, V.

Finally, bilabial sounds are made with the two lips together. Thing B, P, and M.

In addition to places of articulation, consonants have a manner of articulation. This describes how the sound is made, versus where it’s made.

Plosives are made by completely closing the vocal tract at the point of articulation, building up air pressure behind it, then releasing the pressure. Plosives include B, P, D, T, G, and K. They can be made with the vocal cords humming (in which case they’re called voiced) or still (unvoiced).

Nasals are made by closing the vocal tract at the point of articulation and letting air flow out the nose instead of out the mouth. English nasals include M, N, and Ng.

Trills are exactly how they sound: air is rapidly passed over the point of articulation, allowing brief puffs of sound to escape.

Taps or flaps are sort of like light plosives. The vocal tract is closed lightly so air escapes with relatively little force.

Fricatives are formed by narrowing the vocal tract just enough so that the escaping air becomes turbulent; think of rapids in a river. English fricatives include F, V, Th, S, Sh, Z and Zh.

Lateral fricatives (and lateral approximants too) are the same, but the air flow is diverted around either side of the tongue.

Lastly, approximants are sounds in which the vocal tract narrows at the point of articulation, but even less so than with fricatives. They are almost vowels, and in many cases serve the same purpose as vowels (like in the next lesson, when we’ll talk about what’s at the heart of a syllable). In English these include R, Y, and L, which is a lateral approximant.

If you, like me, prefer your information in chart form, then jump over here to see a chart of all the sounds that are made in known natural languages, then here to see the sounds in English specifically. Keep those tabs open, by the way. We’re going to be referring to them.

But what about the vowels, you say? Vowels are wild, that’s what. They don’t depend on hard points of articulation—they’re squishy-wishy slippy-slidey timey-wimey…uh…you get the idea. Suffice it to say they can happen anywhere inside the oral cavity. They can be tense or lax, which means you either tense or relax your vocal tract while you pronounce them, and they can be rounded, which means you make a circle with your lips when you pronounce them, like in the sound “oo”. In addition to this, a vowel can be a monophthong, meaning it is pronounced at just one place in the mouth, or it can be a diphthong, meaning it slides from one place to another, or it can be—wait for it—a triphthong, meaning it moves between three places. All English dialects have several diphthongs: the vowels in face, choice, goat, price, and mouth are all diphthongs. The Wikipedia article on English phonology claims that Received Pronunciation (which is a prescribed “proper” English accent, now falling out of favor but still common on BBC broadcasting) includes triphthongs, but it hasn’t given us any examples of them in use (phooey.)

Go back to the chart I sent you to earlier. This chart is fantastic because if you turn the sound up on your device, it will pronounce the sounds for you. You’ll notice besides the runs of consonants that English has there are series of consonants pronounced as a pop or click, while sucking air in instead of blowing it out, with an extra puff of air…there are lots of fun possibilities.

You’ll also notice that the letters English uses to represent familiar sounds aren’t always the same as the symbols used on this chart. An American R, for example, is ɻ on this chart. Our th- is represented as either θ (unvoiced) or ð (voiced). This system of symbols is called IPA, which stands for International Phonetic Alphabet. These symbols are used because people make more sounds than any alphabet has letters to represent them with. If you really want to keep your head straight as we move forward with constructing your culture’s names, get familiar with those symbols. You can do it. I’ve taught them to a gazillion undergraduate students. You can learn them too.

Spend some time with the IPA chart. Learn about all the wonderful noises humans can make. Try to make them yourself. Get excited about it. Take time with this step, because the next step is to use this chart to construct your language’s phonological inventory.

What’s that?

You’ll notice that English doesn’t use all the possible sounds. No language does. All languages use only a subset of all the noises the human vocal tract can produce. So the first thing you need to do to figure out how your language sounds is…you guessed it. Decide what your language’s subset is, and make a list.

Pick some or a lot of consonants—somewhere between ten and thirty.

Pick some or a lot of vowels—somewhere between three and twelve, say. Also decide if your language has diphthongs and triphthongs, and what they are.

Make your list using IPA symbols, if you can hack it. If you really hate all those little symbols and would rather use the familiar alphabet to write your sounds down, that’s fine too (this is all just fun and games anyway, right?)

You might want to look at the phonological inventories of languages other than English while you’re doing this. Look up Arabic’s. And Mandarin’s. Look up Navajo and Hawaiian. Just google “X phonology” where X is whatever language you’re interested in, and charts will be easy to find.

If you look at enough languages, you’ll notice that languages tend to have “trends” in their phonological inventories. Hawaiian doesn’t have any voiced stops, for example. Arabic has lots of sounds in the velar, uvular, and pharyngeal positions, a part of the vocal tract that English practically ignores. Navajo differentiates unaspirated, aspirated, and ejective stops. Mandarin differentiates tones—sounds spoken using rising, falling, and flat tones of voice. Isn’t that amazing?

So. As you are picking out your language’s phonological inventory, keep in mind that languages tend to have trends in their consonants. You can add consonants that have tones, that are clicks, that are aspirated…whatever makes you happy. Just keep in mind that at the end, you’ll have to figure out how to write it in the standard alphabet for your readers (because you might be willing to learn IPA for your craft, but your readers won’t be.)

At this point, if you are still writing characters who aren’t human, you can impose some broad logic about their phonological inventories based on what you decide about their vocal tracts. Are they cat-people with cleft upper lips, who can’t pronounce bilabial sounds? Do they have teeth like ours that allow dental sounds? Flexible tongues like ours? Do they have an extra point of articulation?

Enjoy yourself, and settle your choices. In the next article we’re going to build syllables.

 

Working Along

Each article in this series will end with a Working Along section, where I’ll make up a naming system at the same time you do, so you can see how I work.

For the sake of simplicity, my characters are human. Say they live on a colonized planet, a couple thousand years after colonization, when the parent cultures have been forgotten.

Below is an inventory of sounds I chose. When choosing yours, I recommend that you start with a word or handful of words that “sound” like your culture, for whatever reason, and use the sounds in those words as the seeds of your phonological inventory. If you already have a character name that you’re attached to then use those.

I started out by thinking of lovely mellifluous words without a lot of hard sounds, like “Wampanoag” and “Momoa.” I picked out the sounds used in them. Then, because I like them, I expanded the series of nasals, added some more velar/uvular/glottal sounds because I guess this language likes that part of the vocal tract, and finally added a trill because they’re fun.

Then I filled out my vowel inventory with mostly mid and back vowels, because that’s where so many of the consonants are happening. I finished off with four diphthongs.

phonology

 

Garden news: Friday, May 31

Okay I’m late with this week’s garden news. On actually-Friday I was sitting at the computer feverishly finishing up a different series of articles for this blog so I could send them to beta readers. When I finished, I rightly thought that I’d put in my computer-work time for the day and went outside. To the garden.

Anyway…

The last week of May hit the garden like a bomb. All the bearded iris that budded this year are in bloom. All the Siberian iris are in bloom. The foxglove is sailing. The columbines and hardy geraniums are petering out. The rose bush I planted a year ago, a David Austin rose called Olivia Rose Austen, is in bloom (yay!) The Spotty Dotty’s flowers are fully unfurled (and “unfurled” is the right word, because they hang long and straight like crimson banners in a medieval hall).

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The sweet peas…suffered depradations by my daughter, who was told she could pick as many as she wanted, and proceeded, over the course of two days and six bouquets, to literally pick every single one that was in bloom. That’s all right; they’re for cutting and she did me a favor by preventing any from going to seed. But I have convinced her to leave them alone for a week so they can re-bloom for her grandparents, who are coming to visit.

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There has been laundry-related anxiety in this household, which I alleviated with two plant orders. From Schreiner’s I ordered irises Batik, Crimson Snow, Attitude, and Gnu’s Flash, and am having an Always and Forever thrust upon me as a reward. Where I will put all these irises is a problem, as I have a relative shortage of hot, sunny sites, but it has all come together in a flash of inspiration. I will move the front row of hellebores out of the corner driveway garden and into the shade garden, where they should get on fine, and put any homeless iris into that spot. It gets the closest thing to full sun I can provide.

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Then, from Bluestone Perennials’ annual clearance sale, I bought variegated Solomon’s Seal, brunnera Alexander’s Great (a giant cultivar, apparently), three hydrangea Pillow Talk to line the back of the terrace garden and maybe hold back the damn hypericum, a tricyrtis Empress to add to my collection (which are happily growing in their new shade garden spots), three penstemon Mystica because OMG have you seen this plant???, a heuchera Marvelous Marble out of curiosity, and…holy cats.. a pink schizophragma, Rose Sensation.

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I’ve had a white schizophragma for a couple of years now. I planted it in the crap part of the shade garden before I understood what I was doing, and last fall when I replanted everything I actually dug it up and left its root ball sitting out all winter and I’ll be damned if the thing didn’t leaf out anyway. So I have re-planted it and I wish it well.

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But now I’m getting a pink one, which requires thinking about. Where do I put it? These are flowering vines with huge potential. They climb. I’d put it over the legacy arbor, but it wants shade. So maybe I’ll try to scramble it up our brick chimney. The chimney is made of an ugly shade of gold brick. It would be nice to cover it.

I also purchased, at Wally World, a shrub rose Icecap which had been grown in a dodgy bark chip media (like something you’d grown an orchid in) and needed deadheading and looked generally so forlorn that they’d reduced the price from $25 to $7.98. I put it in the ground and will treat it right, and I think it will pull through and be enchanting next year.

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So that’s the flowers. The veg garden is making progress. I executed the rhubarb plant that always insists on bolting, and made a crumble out of it. I also picked a mess of chard, several messes of lettuce, and all the radishes, which developed poorly this year. Tiny tomatoes and artichokes are growing. One out of five kale plants is getting eaten by bugs. Pumpkin seedlings are up, and huge, and terrifying. Bean seeds didn’t come up, so I’ll start seeds in trays for planting out ASAP.

And that’s the week in the garden, folks.

Friday garden news: May 24

What a bloomiferous week in the garden. All the early spring stuff is completely finished, and all the late spring stuff has suddenly done its thing. Oriental poppies are blooming. Bearded iris is blooming. Siberian iris. Verbascum. Foxglove. Sambucus. Sweet peas. Columbines (though they’ve been going for a while.) Honey garlic. Even the Spotty Dotty’s buds are cracking open, which fills me with glee. Speaking of podophyllums, I have two hexandrum seedlings. I know, right? One white and one pink. I am chuffed.

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Unfortunately things are not going so well with veg. Hardly any beans have come up. One of my kale plants keeled over. The radishes failed to develop this year. Tomatoes and artichokes are merely slow and steady. The only glory now, and it is a glory indeed, is the lettuce. It’s still tender and sweet and we are eating it up as fast as we can.

It’s been a week of contrasts, weather-wise. It started out dark and wet and chilly and has ended that way too, with two days of sun and warmth (heat?) in the middle. Suffice it to say my plants are equals parts confused and pleased.

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This week I have edged, weeded, deep-watered, and mulched the first two sections of the righthand border. Section 1, I won’t lie, wrecked me. It has sleepers laid behind it to form borders for the auxiliary currant & rhubarb bed, and I had to dig grass roots out from under it. That section had also been invaded by creeping achillea and a giant blackberry root. I got it all out and moved most things in that section prior to mulching, because oh well.

Section 2 was a doddle in comparison. Now I am out of mulch and waiting for a new pile to be delivered tomorrow.

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I have given up on the round corral as a place to plant anything, and moved my specimen peony collection into the driveway garden. This area is sub-optimal for peonies because it gets only a partial day’s sunlight, but I have bearded iris blooming under the same conditions so I figure the peonies can hack it for now.

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I cleaned up generally in the planting-plants-I’ve-bought department. I have three out of four Spanish lavenders planted here and there now, planted the trio of hostas I bought as a just-in-case measure in March, planted my ground orchids in the shade garden, and put seedling globe thistles along the back of LHB4. Those sunny borders need a solid background of plants. I’m going to fill them in with globe thistles and hollyhocks (I have started some Halo Series seedlings). Dahlias can go in front. Speaking of dahlias, hus-tree and I received our emergency replacement tubers from Easy To Grow Bulbs and planted them. We each bought an assorted mix and…I don’t know. Two of mine had sprouts. The others looked a little dodgy. The tubers in mixes are not as nice as the single-variety ones, for future reference.

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Last piece of progress this week was planting my cucurbits. Zucchini seeds went in, and winter squashes Butterscotch and Sweet Dumpling, as well as…oh dear…full size pumpkins Autumn Crown, Valenciano, Fairytale, Lumina White, and Blue Jarrahdale. If these vines grow to full size they’ll swamp the veg patch, but I don’t think they will. Frankly, I’m worried about them germinating at all.

Friday Garden News: May 17

Keeping a garden journal is important if you want to do well by your garden and if you have literally anything else in your life to keep track of. I have been journaling by hand this year, and so far I’ve kept it up, but to be honest I find it cumbersome to write by hand and I end up eliding information. So let’s try writing a Friday blog post every week, detailing what has happened in the garden, for future reference.

Let’s see. Last Friday was May 10. What has happened since then.

Weather
A freak heat wave of 80+ temperatures broke. High temps are back around 60-ish and last night we had a good, solid rain shower. NWS says we got half an inch, but a bucket left out overnight had a solid two inches in it. Everything is soaked and happy, except the cerastium.

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Veg
I am finally picking lettuce. Red Sails leaf lettuce, three romaine mix, and radicchio Bel Fiore make an attractive and tasty salad mix. I ended up with bark chips in this batch no matter how many times I rinsed. Be more careful picking in future.
The Rattlesnake beans are germinating, which means I’m nervous about the places they haven’t germinated yet. Potatoes are coming up everywhere: where I planted them this year, where I planted them last year, and in the raised beds filled with compost. There will be lots of potatoes to dig this summer. Three of the shallot plants bolted, probably due to that freak late frost that also burned the potato leaves. Apparently shallots bolting means the bulbs won’t develop further, so I dug them and used them to make risotto. Tasty.
Other things are growing on happily: tomatoes, artichokes, kale, fava beans, basil, dill, cilantro, and leeks. Parsley and pepper seedlings are coming along nicely. Now where the hell do I put them?
Time to sow zucchini and pumpkins soon, though the weather forecast isn’t particularly warm.

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Cut flowers
I am now cutting sweet peas. I planted them last fall so the plants grew on all winter and are enormous. They did not climb their supports, but they’re so huge and tangled that they sort of prop each other up. All other cutting flowers that have been put into beds are growing nicely. Seeded bachelor’s buttons Classic Romantic Mix where the lettuce was.

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Sunny borders
The hardy geraniums are blooming in the sunny borders, and columbines, and saxifrages (still). Tulips, daffodils, and Italian anemones are over. Salvias and peonies are budding, and the Festiva Maxima peonies I started two years ago are startlingly huge. They might be best in the mid-back. I moved the LHB’s globe thistles to the right-and-proper back, which made me feel better about everything. Dahlias are popping up. Divided and moved three non-blooming bearded iris from the terrace into the sunny borders. Cor, I really need to get started on the RHB. The weeds are taking over. Also the rose is huge.

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Terrace
Lots of symbolic effort there this week. Moved two peonies from the round corral into there. Planted eragrostis Wind Dancer, Verbena bonariensis, and tons of ammi along the end of the path. Planted a swath of globe thistles and another of verbascum Southern Charm. Planted the three Humpback Whale hostas in a pod under the laurel. The regular foxgloves are sprouting up ready to bud. The strawberry foxgloves are sulking.

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Shade garden
Added three maidenhead ferns and three strawberry begonias. Dug up some handfuls of bigroot geranium to spread around. Deadheaded Narcissus thalia, pulmonaria, and brunnera. Mulched some more but not finished.
Things there are *so happy*. It gives me joy. I want another trio of lady ferns. The black snakeroot is finally happy, hooray, and sending up all kinds of new fronds.

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Orchard
The fig twig is dead. The Italian plum is finally leafing out. I hope this rainfall did it good. Found a source for Cox’s Orange Pippin trees: Stark Bros. Best pollinator is Cortland, so will get one of those too. In the fall.

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Pastures and hedgerows
Hawthorn is in bloom, hooray. Also buttercups and the teeny purple-and-yellow frondy things. Hummingbirds have nested, and give me hell.

Pulmonaria, lungwort

Time to celebrate another Very Good Garden Plant: pulmonaria, aka lungwort.

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Pulmonaria growing in my garden in Illinois

Named for the spotted leaves that, I suppose, resemble the alveoli in lung tissue, or perhaps because it was used as a folk remedy for chest ailments (don’t quote me on that, I’m just speculating!), lungwort is a tough plant that, so far as I can tell, will take just about any treatment you throw at it and look great in the bargain.

They’re small plants, topping out at maybe a foot tall and 18″ across. In a harsh winter they will hide underground; in a mild winter their foliage will persist. In early spring they throw out a few new leaves and a lot of flowering stalks topped with numerous tiny, bell-shaped flowers that change from pink to blue as they mature. There are varieties that range from very palest pink and blue to rich and electric.

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A pale pulmonaria in my garden in Illinois

After the flowers fade the stalks will droop. This is the time to cut them off–as well as any old foliage–before the plant puts out its new summer foliage. Then you just let it be, spotty in all its glory, with maybe a feed and a mulch to say ‘thank you’ until next year.

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The foliage of a pulmonaria start in early spring, in my garden in western Washington

They will tolerate a wide range of conditions. I grew them in my Zone 5 garden in Illinois and I grow them in my Zone 8 garden here in the Puget Sound area. I’ve grown them in full sun and mostly shade. Good soil and extremely poor root-ridden soil. So far as I can tell there are only two things that really bother them.

The first is to be too cold. Our last winter in Illinois there was a night that went down to -17F. That killed my pulmonaria (and several other things, too). The second is to get too dry. Then their leaves will lay flat and they’ll look pathetic, but a watering will bring them back to life.

The best thing about pulmonaria, though, is that it propagates from root cuttings. That means that if you’re on a tight budget, or if you’re just cheap like me, you really only need to buy (or be given) a single plant. After that you’re golden.

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Flowers on a pulmonaria start (transplanted the previous fall) in my garden in western Washington

You procure the plant in the spring and put it in a favorable place. Let it grow over the summer. In the fall, about a month before frost, dig it up and plant it somewhere else. Don’t fill in the hole left behind.

Next year, that hole will become a veritable cornucopia of pulmonaria starts, as each root fragment left behind sprouts into its own plant. Let them develop a healthy leaf or two, then plant them out where you want them. In a few weeks there will be more. In fact, it’ll be hard to ever fully get rid of them…but from my point of view, why would you want to?

I have a difficult border in my shade garden under a row of enormous black pines. I’m filling up the front of it with pulmonaria starts. In a year or two I’ll have a solid hedge of pink and blue flowers in the spring, and pretty spotted foliage all summer. Win.

Siberian iris

Everyone loves Dutch iris, but I’d like to draw your attention to their smaller, humbler, but undeniably more useful cousins, the Siberian iris.

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Bagged Siberian iris roots for cheap. They start well this way

I’ve grown Iris siberica in both USDA zone 5 (central Illinois) and USDA zone 8 (Puget Sound area). They survived in both places, though their site in Illinois was hot, dry, and had poor soil. In that location, while their foliage came up, they didn’t bloom. Here on the shores of Puget Sound, in a bed of amended topsoil with clay beneath, they bloom like bonkers. This leads me to conclude that, while they’re indifferent to winter cold and summer heat, they do need some feeding to be happy.

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Two colors of blooms in early June

The primary virtue of everything in my sunny perennial borders is that it produces gorgeous flowers, which Siberian iris undoubtedly does. They’re available in shades of blue, purple, yellow and white. Siberian iris provides a secondary and almost larger benefit, though, in its persistent foliage. The leaves are green and strappy, somewhat above knee height, and persist through the summer until cold temperatures turn them golden. Eventually they collapse onto the ground and then should be cleaned up, but in the meantime, they provide a spectacular backdrop for other things and have a knack for filling in gaps.

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The grassy green foliage persists throughout the growing season, making a good backdrop for other plants. Second-year plant seen here on the far right

Every Siberian iris I have was grown from a bagged root. Above in this post were some I bought at my local major retailer. This was the first time I’ve seen Siberian iris roots there though, and I do pay attention, so if you don’t see them don’t be distressed. Turn to online sources. My bagged-root source of choice is Bulbs Direct, which has the virtue of being cheap and offering a large selection. Their drawbacks are that they have a confined sales season, some roots arrive dead and growing mold, and they have persistent problems with correctly labeling the varieties of their plants. That’s how I ended up with the two shades of purple shown above. For the price they’re asking I’m more than willing to swallow these failings, though, and I’ve always received prompt and friendly replies to inquiries.

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Golden Siberian iris foliage playing backdrop to spent sedum heads in early November

Once established in a happy place Siberian iris is almost care-free. As I said the foliage will need to be cut short after it has collapsed in late fall or early winter; some other perennials stay upright and have winter interest but these just turn into a soggy mess. Do manure them in the fall and mulch them in the spring, just like you would anything else (riiiiight?). Other than that, once they’re in place, don’t mess with them. They dislike being moved and will probably sulk the next year. They’re far less prone to disease than Dutch iris and far less picky about their spot than some of the water-loving irises, though, and they are the only iris Piet Oudolf recommends for naturalistic planting.

Enjoy!

Snow in the desert

We visited my parents in Albuquerque over Christmas. Us coming from the Pacific Northwest, and all of us lately of the Midwest, we sort of expect Albuquerque to be a sunny, precipitation-free haven.

It didn’t work that way this year. Pretty pictures, tho, and maybe the only snow we’ll see this year, since there isn’t a single freezing temperature in our ten-day forecast.

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Happy New Year

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Happy New Year from January 1, that misty, numinous stretch between Yule and Imbolc, when the merrymaking is over and it’s time to rest, and contemplate, and plan.

I am getting my garden seed orders together. Earlier than usual, but then, the catalogues started arriving in December, so I took it as a sign. As you know from earlier entries I’ve had things pretty well planned since August anyway.

Here’s wishing good health to you, good fortune, continuing throughout the year, and that 2019 may be better than its predecessor. Cheers!

Bringing in the dahlias

Last night the temperature dipped to the mid-30s, so I’m glad I had the dahlias safely tucked away for the winter.

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Dahlias are a delightful flower that is ubiquitous around here (USDA grow zone 7-8ish) but unheard-of back in Indiana and Illinois, where I learned how to garden (USDA grow zone 5.) This is both because frozen ground in the winter will kill them and because they won’t bloom and thrive in intense summer heat. Here in the PNW, though, the major danger to them is rotting in the wet winter soil.

Last year I joined a local dahlia society to learn how to grow and care for them. A lot of those people overwinter their tubers and generally have good results by doing so; you need to make sure they’re in a well-draining place, either in amended soil or a raised bed, and you’re mostly good to go. The occasional cold winter or long, cold, wet spring (hello 2017…) will kill some, but for the work saved, to the people who grow hundreds, it’s worth the risk.

I only have a few and I have tender feelings about some of my varieties, though, so this year I dug mine.

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The first step to putting them away in the winter is to cut back the foliage to 4-6″ of stem. Yes, it’s sad, I know. You can wait until frost has destroyed the foliage if you want to. Compost the foliage and think of how much good it’ll do the plants next year.

At this point, decide whether you’ll want to divide your clumps of tubers or not. Like potatoes, a dahlia tuber will create many new dahlia tubers during the growing season. Each tuber is capable of producing a new plant, though leaving clumps alone for a few years will create a big mass that grows a bushlike plant rather than a single, tall one. It’s up to you.

If you’re going to divide, you should leave the tuber in the ground for a week or so after cutting the foliage, to let the tubers grow “eyes.” The eyes will turn into flowering stalks in the spring, and without at least one still attached, a tuber won’t grow. So if you’re dividing you need to be able to see them, and to see them the dahlias need another week in the ground to grow them.

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If you aren’t dividing, the way I’m not, then you can instantly dig your tubers up. Use a fork and start 10-12″ away from the stalk to avoid spearing tubers. Gently prise the soil up, then pull the mass of tubers free (they look so much like the mandrake roots from Harry Potter, it makes me laugh) and spray them clean with the hose. Now lay them out somewhere peaceful and not too sunny to dry. They can dry for up to a week.

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A freshly-dug mass of tubers. Do you have your earmuffs on?

Once they’re a little dry, you need to move them into conditions that provide three things:

1. Darkness
2. Enough warmth that they won’t freeze
3. Something to prevent them from drying out completely

Monty Don of Gardener’s World packs his around with spent compost and stores them in a shed. In my dahlia society we put them in trash bags full of cedar shavings (the kind used in kennels), then into styrofoam coolers, which people stored in basements, crawlspaces, garages, and sheds.

Mine are spending the winter in the potting shed.

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There is a possibility of fungal activity rotting your tubers over the winter. There are two things you can do to minimize this risk:

1. Trim off all excess material, like the tiny trailing roots and any damaged tubers. The damaged ones you see above simply split when they were pulled because it had rained recently and they were so full of moisture. It’s okay; there are other, whole tubers on the bunch; but you don’t want the damaged ones to stay because they can only rot. Cut them off.

2. Add a fungicide to the cedar shavings. I put a couple tablespoons of powdered sulfur fungicide in each of my bags and shook it around before I put the tubers in.

Having taken these precautions, you’ve done just about all that can be done to prevent fungal rot. If you really love your dahlias, check them once or twice over the winter, and if you see powdery black mildew cut off the affected parts and store in fresh substrate. When fungus does take hold it tends to affect all the tubers in the same bag, so consider spreading your tubers out into multiple bags, just to hedge your bets.

And that’s it. Tubers are tucked away for the winter. Congratulations!